How to Master Functions in VBA: A Rapid Tutorial in 3 Minutes (Excel)

Written by Kasper Langmann

Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) is a powerful tool that allows Excel users to automate tasks and enhance their spreadsheets. One of the most powerful features of VBA is its ability to use functions. Functions are pre-defined pieces of code that perform specific tasks, and they can be used to simplify and speed up your VBA programming. In this tutorial, we will explore how to master functions in VBA in just three minutes.

Understanding VBA Functions

Before we dive into how to use functions in VBA, it’s important to understand what a function is. In VBA, a function is a named sequence of statements that performs a calculation. When you call a function, you provide it with inputs (or arguments), and it returns a result.

Functions can be built-in, such as the SUM or AVERAGE functions, or they can be user-defined. User-defined functions (UDFs) are functions that you create yourself in VBA. UDFs can be used to perform tasks that are not possible with built-in functions, or to simplify complex calculations.

Types of VBA Functions

VBA includes a wide range of built-in functions, which can be grouped into several categories. These include mathematical functions, text functions, date and time functions, and logical functions. Each category of functions is designed to work with a specific type of data, and they can be combined in various ways to perform complex calculations.

Mathematical functions, for example, include functions like ROUND, which rounds a number to a specified number of decimal places, and SQRT, which calculates the square root of a number. Text functions include functions like LEFT, which returns a specified number of characters from the start of a text string, and CONCATENATE, which combines two or more text strings into one.

How to Use VBA Functions

Using functions in VBA is a straightforward process. To use a function, you simply include it in your code, providing any necessary arguments. The function then performs its calculation and returns a result.

For example, to use the ROUND function to round a number to two decimal places, you would write the following code: ROUND(1.2345, 2). This code would return the result 1.23.

Using Built-In Functions

To use a built-in function in VBA, you simply include the function in your code, followed by its arguments in parentheses. The arguments are the values that the function uses to perform its calculation.

For example, to use the SUM function to add up a range of numbers, you would write the following code: SUM(1, 2, 3, 4, 5). This code would return the result 15.

Creating User-Defined Functions

To create a user-defined function in VBA, you use the Function keyword, followed by the name of the function, a list of arguments in parentheses, and the code that performs the calculation. The function ends with the End Function keyword.

For example, to create a function that calculates the average of three numbers, you would write the following code:

Function Average(a, b, c)
    Average = (a + b + c) / 3
End Function

This code defines a function named Average, which takes three arguments (a, b, and c), calculates their average, and returns the result.

Best Practices for Using VBA Functions

While VBA functions are powerful tools, they can also be complex and difficult to use correctly. Here are some best practices to help you use VBA functions effectively and avoid common pitfalls.

Use Descriptive Function Names

When creating user-defined functions, it’s important to use descriptive names that clearly indicate what the function does. This makes your code easier to read and understand, and it helps prevent errors.

Use Comments to Document Your Functions

Comments are lines of text in your code that are ignored by VBA. They are used to document your code, explaining what it does and why. By using comments to document your functions, you can make your code easier to understand and maintain.

Test Your Functions Thoroughly

Before you use a function in your code, it’s important to test it thoroughly to make sure it works correctly. This includes testing it with a variety of inputs, including edge cases and invalid inputs.


Mastering functions in VBA can greatly enhance your ability to automate tasks and perform complex calculations in Excel. By understanding how functions work, learning how to use built-in functions and create your own user-defined functions, and following best practices, you can become proficient in using VBA functions in just a few minutes.