How to Understand What a VBA Module Is in 3 Minutes (Excel)

Written by Kasper Langmann

In the world of Excel, there are countless tools and features designed to streamline your data management and analysis tasks. One such tool is the VBA Module, a fundamental component of Excel’s Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) programming language. But what exactly is a VBA Module, and how does it function within the broader context of Excel? Let’s dive in and find out.

Understanding VBA and Its Role in Excel

Before we delve into the specifics of VBA Modules, it’s important to understand the role of VBA in Excel. VBA, or Visual Basic for Applications, is a programming language developed by Microsoft. It’s used across the Microsoft Office suite, including Excel, to automate tasks and add functionality.

Excel’s VBA is incredibly versatile. It can be used to automate repetitive tasks, create custom functions, and even build user interfaces. If you’ve ever used a macro in Excel, you’ve used VBA, as macros are written in this language.

Why Use VBA in Excel?

Excel is a powerful tool on its own, but VBA takes it to the next level. With VBA, you can automate complex tasks, saving you time and reducing the risk of errors. For example, you could write a VBA script to automatically format a report, saving you from having to manually apply formatting every time you create a similar report.

VBA also allows you to create custom functions and procedures, giving you more control over your data analysis. You can write functions to perform calculations that aren’t available in Excel’s built-in function library, or create procedures to perform a series of tasks with a single command.

Defining a VBA Module

Now that we understand the role of VBA in Excel, let’s turn our attention to VBA Modules. A VBA Module is essentially a container for VBA code. It’s where you write, store, and organize your VBA scripts. Each module is a separate entity, allowing you to group related scripts together for easier management and debugging.

There are three types of modules in VBA: Standard Modules, Class Modules, and UserForm Modules. Each serves a different purpose and has its own unique characteristics.

Standard Modules

Standard Modules are the most common type of VBA Module. They’re where you’ll write most of your VBA code, including functions, procedures, and macros. Standard Modules are global, meaning the code within them can be accessed from anywhere in your Excel workbook.

When you record a macro in Excel, the code is automatically stored in a Standard Module. You can also manually create a new Standard Module by going to the VBA Editor (Alt + F11), right-clicking in the Project Explorer, and selecting Insert > Module.

Class Modules

Class Modules are a bit more advanced. They’re used to create custom objects in VBA, allowing you to define your own properties, methods, and events. For example, you could create a custom “Employee” object with properties like “Name”, “Title”, and “Salary”, and methods like “Promote” and “Terminate”.

Class Modules are typically used in more complex VBA projects, where the built-in objects and methods of Excel’s VBA aren’t sufficient. To create a Class Module, go to the VBA Editor, right-click in the Project Explorer, and select Insert > Class Module.

UserForm Modules

UserForm Modules are used to create user interfaces in VBA. A UserForm is a custom dialog box that you can design with various controls, like text boxes, buttons, and drop-down lists. The code that controls these elements is stored in a UserForm Module.

UserForms are a great way to make your VBA scripts more user-friendly, especially if other people will be using them. To create a UserForm, go to the VBA Editor, right-click in the Project Explorer, and select Insert > UserForm.

Working with VBA Modules

Now that we’ve defined what a VBA Module is and discussed the different types, let’s look at how to work with them. This includes creating a new module, writing code in a module, and running a module.

Creating a New Module

Creating a new VBA Module is simple. As mentioned earlier, you can do this by going to the VBA Editor (Alt + F11), right-clicking in the Project Explorer, and selecting Insert > Module. This will create a new Standard Module. For a Class Module or UserForm Module, select Class Module or UserForm instead of Module.

Once you’ve created a new module, you can rename it by selecting the module in the Project Explorer, going to the Properties window (F4), and changing the “(Name)” property. It’s a good idea to give your modules descriptive names, especially if you’re working with a large VBA project.

Writing Code in a Module

Writing code in a VBA Module is just like writing code in any other programming environment. You’ll write your code in the Code Window, which is the large white area on the right side of the VBA Editor. You can navigate to different modules by clicking on them in the Project Explorer.

VBA is a relatively easy language to learn, especially if you’re already familiar with Excel. The syntax is straightforward, and there are plenty of resources available online to help you learn. If you’re new to VBA, start with simple tasks like recording and editing macros, then gradually move on to writing your own functions and procedures.

Running a Module

Once you’ve written some code in a VBA Module, you’ll likely want to run it to see if it works. There are several ways to do this. If your module contains a Sub procedure (a piece of code that performs a task but doesn’t return a value), you can run it by pressing F5 or selecting Run > Run Sub/UserForm from the VBA Editor menu.

If your module contains a Function procedure (a piece of code that performs a task and returns a value), you can call it from a cell in your Excel workbook. Just type “=” followed by the function name and any required arguments, just like you would with a built-in Excel function.


Understanding VBA Modules is crucial for anyone looking to leverage the full power of Excel’s VBA. Whether you’re automating simple tasks with macros or building complex custom functions, VBA Modules are where your code will live.

Remember, practice makes perfect. The more you work with VBA and its modules, the more comfortable you’ll become. So don’t be afraid to dive in and start coding. Happy programming!