How to Understand and Implement VBA Structure in 3 Minutes (Excel)

Written by Kasper Langmann

Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) is a powerful programming language that allows you to automate tasks in Excel. It can be a game-changer for those who spend a lot of time working with spreadsheets, as it can significantly speed up and streamline your workflow. In this guide, we’ll cover the basics of understanding and implementing VBA structure in Excel.

Understanding VBA Structure

What is VBA?

VBA, or Visual Basic for Applications, is a programming language developed by Microsoft. It is primarily used for automating tasks in Microsoft Office applications, including Excel. VBA is an event-driven language, meaning it responds to user actions such as mouse clicks or key presses.

VBA is a powerful tool that can save you time and effort. With VBA, you can automate repetitive tasks, create custom functions, and even build user interfaces in your Excel spreadsheets.

Basic VBA Structure

A VBA program, also known as a VBA procedure or subroutine, is a series of VBA statements that perform a specific task. The basic structure of a VBA program is as follows:

Sub ProcedureName()
    ' VBA code goes here
End Sub

The ‘Sub’ keyword indicates the start of the procedure, and ‘End Sub’ indicates the end. The procedure name follows the ‘Sub’ keyword and can be any valid identifier. The VBA code inside the procedure is executed when the procedure is called.

Comments in VBA are denoted by the single quotation mark (‘), and anything following this mark on the same line is ignored by the VBA interpreter. Comments are a useful way to document your code and make it easier to understand.

Implementing VBA Structure in Excel

Setting Up the VBA Environment

Before you can start writing VBA code, you need to set up the VBA environment in Excel. To do this, you need to enable the Developer tab, which is not visible by default. Follow these steps:

  1. Right-click anywhere on the ribbon and select ‘Customize the Ribbon’.
  2. In the Excel Options dialog box that appears, check the ‘Developer’ box under the ‘Main Tabs’ section and click ‘OK’.

Once the Developer tab is enabled, you can access the VBA editor by clicking on the ‘Visual Basic’ button on the Developer tab, or by pressing ‘Alt + F11’.

Writing Your First VBA Procedure

Now that you have set up the VBA environment, you can start writing your first VBA procedure. Here’s a simple example:

Sub HelloWorld()
    MsgBox "Hello, world!"
End Sub

This procedure displays a message box with the text “Hello, world!” when called. To call this procedure, you can use the ‘Run’ button in the VBA editor, or you can assign it to a button or other control in your Excel spreadsheet.

Remember to save your Excel file as a Macro-Enabled Workbook (.xlsm) if it contains VBA code. Otherwise, the code will not be saved.

Exploring Further

Understanding VBA Variables and Data Types

VBA supports several data types, including Integer, String, and Boolean. Variables in VBA are declared using the ‘Dim’ keyword, followed by the variable name and the data type. For example, ‘Dim x As Integer’ declares a variable named ‘x’ of type Integer.

Understanding variables and data types is crucial for writing complex VBA procedures. It allows you to store and manipulate data in your code, making your procedures more flexible and powerful.

Learning More About VBA Control Structures

VBA includes several control structures that allow you to control the flow of your code. These include ‘If…Then’ statements, ‘For’ loops, and ‘While’ loops. These structures are essential for writing dynamic and interactive VBA procedures.

For example, an ‘If…Then’ statement allows your code to make decisions based on certain conditions. A ‘For’ loop allows your code to perform a task a certain number of times, and a ‘While’ loop allows your code to perform a task as long as a certain condition is true.

Exploring VBA Functions and Subroutines

VBA procedures can be either functions or subroutines. A function is a procedure that returns a value, while a subroutine is a procedure that performs a task but does not return a value. Understanding the difference between functions and subroutines, and knowing when to use each, is key to writing effective VBA code.

For example, you might use a function to calculate a value based on some input, and a subroutine to automate a repetitive task such as formatting a range of cells in a certain way.


Understanding and implementing VBA structure in Excel can seem daunting at first, but with practice, it becomes second nature. The key is to start small, with simple procedures, and gradually work your way up to more complex tasks. With the power of VBA at your fingertips, you’ll be able to automate tasks, create custom functions, and enhance your Excel spreadsheets in ways you never thought possible.